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- Paula y Paulita
- PDF Los dos soles de Toledo (Spanish Edition)
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- Coinage of the Americas Conference
Two night family stay whilst travelling from Madrid Airport to Alicante. Generous sized, comfortable, quite family room. Great selection of food at breakfast. Clean, quiet and in a perfect location. Great stay. Centre of Toledo. Invite hosts List your property.
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You've successfully reported this review. We appreciate your feedback. OK, close. You can find snazzier versions too. Santiago was the first to issue these small pieces. Lima produced its first bust cuartillo in In February , a new design for this denomination was authorized and the resultant lion-and-castle pieces became standard at all the mints from forward.
Unfortunately the coins' small size and limited production rendered them less useful than they should have been. Curiously, despite intensifying political problems, the quality of production remained rather high even during the final year of output. Despite Napoleon's control of most of Spain , the colonial mints continued to acknowledge Ferdinand as king. As a result, both Lima and Santiago issued coins during that featured an imaginary bust of the new ruler fig.
The Spanish courts ruled in that the coins should bear the "natural bust" of the king rather than a military or adorned bust, and the mints modified their designs accordingly once the pewter patterns of arrived. As the wars for independence spread throughout South America , the Santiago and Lima mints produced increased quantities of coinage to underwrite the war effort. However, in , Santiago was abandoned by the Spanish and the colonial dies fell into the hands of the new republican authorities. Minor-denomination coins of the colonial bust style were produced for several years with the date of , except for some cuartillos dated made from an amended die.
Farther north, the Lima mint maintained relatively full production through Republicans captured it in but the royalists retook the city in , at which time the colonial bust-style pieces were again coined. In , some of the republican 8 reales of were overstruck with the colonial bust dies, and in , a royal crown was countermarked on some of these same rebel coins fig. In , the final colonial issue of Lima was struck; the only denomination is an 8 reales with a slightly different bust than had been used before.
Viceroy Laserna, aided by General Canterac, moved some of the mint machinery from Lima to Cuzco once it became obvious that the Lima mint again would fall to the insurgents. A series of silver coins denominated 1, 2, and 8 reales was produced with the Cuzco monogram and with assayer letter T.
Other pieces of this colonial design were coined in the 8-real and 8-escudo denominations, dated , except with assayer letter G fig. The available documentation seems to indicate that they were probably not struck until after the republicans took control of the Cuzco mint. For now, that distinction must be accorded some of the Cuzco coins even though we cannot yet be certain which ones. Indeed a symbolic bridge did exist, but its wealth spread north as well as east. These coins are our historical link—another kind of bridge—to that bygone time and society that fostered so much wealth and rapid economic growth for nearly three centuries.
Knowing the fineness of a silver or gold coin can provide information that is very useful in various historical and numismatic studies. If the proclaimed legal standard is known, knowledge of the actual fineness of the coins can indicate the degree to which the standard was being followed by the various mints.
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If the legal standard is unknown, as is the case in many historical studies where adequate written records are unavailable, knowledge of the actual fineness of the coins can provide an indication of economic stresses on the society; wars and famines, for example, could be accompanied by coinage debasement.
Variations in fineness among mints could indicate the degree of control exercised by the central government on the outlying mints. Besides the weight of a coin, the fineness is also an important property associated with the coin's intrinsic value. There are however, other properties of coins that were not controlled by the minters and, based on modern methods of analysis, can reveal additional information about the coins and metal sources.
These properties are the impurities in the major metal used in the coins: the small amount of gold impurity in all silver or the small amounts of platinum and other metal impurities present in almost all gold. These impurity levels were unknown to the minters and this information provides what historians refer to as unbiased data. The iconography and legends on coins are biased in that their purpose was usually to glorify the reigning monarch.
The metal impurity levels, on the other hand, were unknown and uncontrolled and, therefore, provide totally new, unbiased information. Coins can be analyzed by a variety of means. The fineness of gold coins can be approximated fairly accurately by density measurements since the metal usually alloyed with the gold silver, or sometimes copper differs markedly from the density of gold. Even silver coin fineness can be determined by density measurements, although less precisely, since the densities of silver and copper are similar in value.
One problem with density measurements for the determination of fineness is that they can be applied with relative precision only to binary alloy mixtures. If a coin is made of a mixture of three metals, each with a different density, it is not possible to calculate the fineness of the coin from the density measurement.
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Other usually minor problems can also exist, such as the possible inclusion of air bubbles in the metal matrix. Destructive chemical analysis can provide reliable, precise, and complete analysis data for a coin. The obvious problem with destructive chemical analysis is that you no longer have the coin; it is dissolved in acid as part of the analysis. About 20 years ago, various historians and art historians inquired if it would be possible to modify methods already in use for the analysis of archaeological artifacts and apply them to the analysis of coins and metallic works of art.
The method, neutron activation analysis, is based on the procedure of bombarding samples with neutrons usually in a nuclear reactor to make a tiny fraction of the atoms radioactive. Based on the types of radioactive atoms produced, it is possible to say what chemical elements are present in a sample.
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Based on the intensities of the radiation emitted by these radioactive elements, it is possible to say how much of a chemical element is present. Neutron activation analysis is often described as a non-destructive method of analysis since the sample still remains intact; typically much less than one-in-one-billion of the atoms is made radioactive. A coin will have about 10 22 atoms. After the induced radioactivity has decayed, the sample will appear unchanged. One problem with the method, of course, is how long you must wait for the radioactivity to dissipate; for some elements this could be years, for others only minutes.
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We have devised two methods of neutron activation analysis applicable to coins. Both can provide useful information. They are described below. Of the two methods based on neutron activation analysis that were devised for the analysis of coins, the first is strictly non-destructive, results in the production of only short-lived radioactive silver, and shows undetectable radioactivity after about minutes.
It allows determining the silver fineness of a coin. The second method, while not strictly non-destructive, requires removal of only a tiny sample of metal from the edge of the coin in the form of a metal rubbing streak on high-purity, quartz tubing.
This metal rubbing is made radioactive in a nuclear reactor and allows determination of the relative amounts of silver, gold, copper, zinc, arsenic, and antimony in the rubbing.