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Abundant use of precious and semiprecious such as garnet, especially in the French and Scandinavian jewelry stones is noteworthy. Precious stones like malachite and alabaster were worked on a large scale in order to be employed in architectural decoration. The use of color was prevalent, pendants are made with many stones as well as being glazed.

One of the most recognizable pieces from the period is the pendant and brooch with a small portrait on the front. Another use of great influence and recognition from the time is the influx of jewelry into fashion as an adornment for velvet and silk, garments were embroidered with pearls and applications were made onto precious metals. Industrialization facilitated the mass-production of jewelry, which lowered the costs but also created a culture of imitation, giving rise to what is known under the name of "costume jewelry".

The concept of sets appeared, sets of three or four pieces, be they earrings, pendants, rings, bracelets or brooches, among others, were sold together; as well cigar cases, stamps and shoe buckles were created. All of this changed the field of jewelry as a result of the splendor of design. Valuation of forms and piece originality in the cost of the material, caused the jewel to have its social function redefined.

Also worth mention, there is a collection of hard stones, which is one of the most important worldwide. The Treasure of the Dolphin is named for having belonged to Louis of France, the Grand Dolphin, who died during a smallpox epidemic in without having become king, with part of the kingdom being inherited the following year by his second son, Felipe V of Spain. The first Spanish Bourbon received pieces, a not very large percentage of al those produced inventoried in , but they were deemed among the best in the collection.

However almost all of these which still exist were defaced by thieves during the French invasion and another such which took place in the early twentieth century, which further reduced their number to Of these, 49 are made of rock crystal and the other 71 stones semiprecious stones such as agate, lapis lazuli, chalcedony, jasper, jade, serpentine or alabaster and other materials such as nautilus shells. The mountings are usually gold, although there are some in silver, both in gild and color, and frequently they are realized with lush glazes and fine turquoise, amethyst, garnet and precious stones diamonds, sapphires, emeralds and rubies as well as with pearls.

The Spanish jewelry sector has had the privilege of coming face-to-face with one such specimen, organized by the IVAM, through Commissioner Diane Venet, which from a new perspective, has shown the public the connection between jewelry and artistic production through a selection of more than jewelry pieces designed by some of the most important artists of the second half of the twentieth century and the nineteenth.

The jewels come, mostly, from the private collection of exhibition curator Diane Venet, as well as various European artists and collectors. Very few artists made jewelry before the twentieth century. The Florentine Renaissance sculptor Benvenuto Cellini was one of the exceptions. In the sixteenth century he created his 'Perseus' in Florence, in the Piazza della Signoria, with the skill of a goldsmith. Much later, some jewelers were considered artists, as well as artisans. Faberge jewelry definitely turned jewelry into art but he was neither sculptor nor painter.

The overlap between sculpture and handmade individual jewelry pieces can be said to begin with the Catalan modernism, a style that encompasses all art forms including architecture, and was epitomized by the architect Antonio Gaudi In Germany, the Bauhaus expanded the range of materials used by artists to make jewelry. Artisan production was in Bauhaus for the first time considered, almost on par with the major arts and, therefore, the line between them faded to the point that painters, sculptors and architects felt comfortable making artesan pieces.

The artist Anni Albers cleared the path for work with 'waste' materials. Bauhaus teacher Josef Albers, in , made a brooch with a filter trough suspended by aluminum clips made to hold paper. The influence of the Bauhaus permeated the work of later artists such as Robert Rauschenberg who used scrap materials to create sculptures.

Tiziano, Vecellio di Gregorio

In the same line, the Italian sculptor Alberto Giacometti made his first jewelry piece in , which were the result of a failed attempt when designing buttons for Italian designer Elsa Schiaparelli. Cast in bronze, they were rejected as being too heavy so he turned them into pendants and brooches for his friends Cocteau, etc. In , the Lithuanian Jacques Lipchitz, made a unique bracelet made of coral and silver similar to an abacus.

This piece belongs to Diane Venet and is part of the exhibition. Moreover, the Italian sculptor Gino Severini, a signatory of the Futurist Painting manifesto with Balla and Boccioni , enjoyed creating works full of rhythm. A bracelet made in , one of a kind, evoking the shackle of a slave. It can also be seen in the exhibition. In France, in the thirties, Pablo Picasso, when he was in love with Dora Maar, picked up stones and painted for her.

Then did the same for Marie Therese Walter, and engraved her portrait on fragments of bones and shells found on the beach.

Both pieces could possibly have eventually been worn as necklaces or pendants. These objects are not posthumous inventions decorated with motifs taken from various works of Picasso. Each was selected individually, designed and approved by Picasso himself. Alexander Calder was the first artist able to translate his sculptural style directly.

Brailovsky - Historia ecológica de Iberoamérica II

He made different pieces that were inspired by African sculptures and the avant-garde art when he lived in Paris in the '20s. He was certainly the first artist who became successful from making jewelry based on modern sculpture. To some, he gave the shape with their initials of his friends such as spiral silver initials OK, a gift given to Georgia O'Keefe who used it regularly to hold up the kimono dresses that became her uniform.

Calder also designed moving pieces that were activated by the movements of the wearer.

His creations made jewelry created by sculptors, which looked like three-dimensional miniatures of their works fashionable. Regarding the promotion of jewelry artists it is essential to cite Gian Carlo Montebello who devoted many years of his life, with his wife Teresa Pomodoro, to this endeavor. The exhibition includes work of all of them. In Paris, in , Montebello met Man Ray. And based on a design from the artist, there emerged the first of a long series, the collection "Pendentif pendant" dangling earring.

He then made several series of objects, limited collections, such as the famous mask "Optic Topic". It has a fascinating history because, apart from its technological applications, such as in electronics, telecommunications, microchips, medicine and nanotechnology, or its integration into other objects such as sculptures, buildings, dishware, adorning them with an aesthetic and stylish quality, the main use of gold is industrial jewelry and art jewelry or unique pieces because, despite being an age-old metal, it is flexible enough for the production of these objects.

Its resistance to the passage of time gives strictly the "value", unlike a "price" that depends on economic situations, it remains always, if it is also subject to a minimum of care it will keep its beauty and color for the generations to come that inherit such a piece. Precisely, its peculiar characteristics, have given gold a central role in history and human development and, therefore, it has been valued and desired since ancient times for making statues, icons and to adorn bodies.


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We have been able to admire jewelry with intricate sculptures in Sumerian and Egyptian royal tombs. Gold jewelry has existed for more than 6, years. Since humans discovered gold, it has been processed to make it into jewelry and worn as a symbol of status or power or more recently, offered as a public statement gold medals, golden cups or, differently, presented in an intimate celebration of love. Significant buildings, temples and religious statues were covered with thin sheets of gold.

As a result of its importance, it has always been considered a symbol of wealth and power of its owner. Within gold jewelry there is a precious item that transcends time, gold is the material that gives intrinsic value to the piece if industrial or, conversely, the form will be more valuable if it is a work of art, singularl, a unique piece but such a form can only be indestructible in this metal, so that can be treasured for centuries to come. Among its many qualities, gold has an exceptional intimacy, immutable and perpetual, personal and protective gold is the perfect expression of the individual creative intentions that allow the wearer of such a piece to also share the spirit of the artist who created it.

Gold is the most used metal in jewelry, it has been present in almost all periods of history. The word "gold" comes from the Latin word aurum, meaning shining light, perhaps because of it has been associated with the sun. This metal is attributed healing and magical powers, plus "its value as a sign of ostentation and power has been coveted for centuries by the majority of peoples and cultures" Codina For some peoples, gold has been a symbol of light, fire, life, power and wisdom, it has been linked with everything extraordinary and wonderful: "gold, considered the most precious of all metals, is a symbol of everything that holds utmost value or that which is the most difficult to achieve " Bruce - Mitford, , p.

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In the world of alchemy gold is positively conceived as the most pure and noble metal; it is associated with eternity and perfection, so unchanging and unchangeable, also it was used to ward off evil curses. Since Christianity, gold is linked with God and all that is sacred, furthermore it represents the soul and divine intelligence; This is why both in rites and sacred temples objects of this material were used: "in Orthodox Christianity gold is a symbol of heavenly light and perfection, which is referenced in the golden background of the Medieval paintings done on wood and the icons of the Eastern church.

Gold is the least reactive of all metals. It is called a "noble" an alchemist term metal because it does not oxidize under ordinary conditions, meaning it will never rust nor never tarnish. It ended after World War I, as belligerent governments needed to print large amounts of money in order to fund the war effort although without the ability to back such money in precious metal. The gold standard is a monetary system that sets the value of a currency in terms of a certain amount of gold.

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The issuer of the currency guarantees that you can give the holder of the notes the amount of gold appropriated to them. An alternative is the bimetallic standard, in which one part of the currency is backed by gold and another by silver. After World War I, this was replaced by the gold exchange standard.

The currencies that guaranteed the change to gold were the dollar and sterling.

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This system resulted in a relative and lasting stability, from to Most economies in the world expanded in that period, so this stage is known historically as the "Golden Age". Many goods have been used as money but the most esteemed was gold, used since the dawn of history for its qualities as durable divisible, homogeneous and difficult to counterfeit made gold the currency of choice of almost every culture on the planet. Bills emerged as signed promises to deliver to its carrier the amount of gold that they indicated.

Banks issued these tickets carefully to maintain a balance between the money that had been issued and the held gold reserves in their vaults, since, otherwise, they would lose the trust of their customers. The gold standard was an international monetary system that could not function without the cooperation of the countries that adopted it.

While it worked it prevented nations from implementing isolationist policies that would reduce international trade and which tend to produce a rigorous stagnation. After its collapse, discriminatory nationalist policies quickly emerged, particularly recurring devaluations and a strong protectionism, which restricted multilateral trade and deepened the crisis of the thirties. In the periodic table of elements, gold is classified as a transient metal with the following characteristics: - Symbol, Au - Atomic number, 79 - Atomic Mass, In its pure form, gold has a metallic luster and its color is the yellow of the sun, but when mixed or alloyed with other metals it creates color hues ranging from silver-white to green and orange-red.

These colour variation treatments of gold are mostly used in jewelry.

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Fineness is a metallurgical term indicating the purity of gold and is expressed in parts per 1, Coins and gold bars have a fineness of The purity of gold in an item or the amount of gold in an alloy is measured by a unit called a carat. A fine or pure gold item has 24 carats, and in an item with fewer carats the content of fine golden is indicated as a fraction out of The use of gold in circuit wiring ensures the reliability of equipment operation, particularly in the vital activation mechanisms of airbags in motor vehicles or the deployment of satellites or spacecrafts.

There is no other metal as ductile or as malleable as gold. A single ounce of the metal can be stretched into a wire five miles long. Gold can be hammered into sheets so thin that light can pass through them. High purity gold reflects infrared energy heat almost completely, making it ideal for heat reflection and radiation. Gold is also an excellent conductor of thermal energy.

It is used in many electronic processes to dissipate heat away from delicate instruments. The first gold Olympic medal was received in Before then, the winners received silver medals. The gold medal today is actually made of silver, with at least six grams 0. The most detailed and accurate images of Neptune and Uranus were captured by the Keck telescopes, which used gold-coated mirrors. Each phone contains gold in the miniature transmitter in its mouthpiece. Due to its ability to transmit a superior signal, gold is also used to cover telephone terminals and connecting cables.

Airforce One, the aircraft used by the President of the United States is protected from heat-seeking missiles by gold-plated reflectors. The crown found in in the tomb of Shub-ad, Queen of Mesopotamia looked new despite being years old. Gold is gold forever and never gets old. In order to produce a few grams of platinum, at least three tons of ore containing it must be extracted, this rarity gives platinum a certain importance. Platinum is hypoallergenic, it does not lose its luster, which is why it is among the finest, purest and rarest precious metals.

Platinum history is much older than you might think.